Frequently Asked Questions on NuLiv Proprietary AstraGin™?
1. What Is AstraGin™?
AstraGin™ is a proprietary all natural dietary ingredient produced from two popular health promoting plants, Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng, which has been used in many parts of the world for thousands of years to support and promote better absorption, well being, and overall health.
2. What can AstraGin ™do?
AstraGin™ is the first and only natural food and dietary ingredient that has been demonstrated in cell, animal, and human studies to significantly improve the absorption of many essential life supporting and health promoting nutrients, such as amino acids, glucose, and vitamins, in digestive tracts. Only when nutrients are absorbed will they become available to our entire body to support and promote good health and better well being.
3. Isn’t digestion same as Absorption?
No, “digestion” and “absorption” are two different processes. Digestion comes first then absorption. Nutrients are bond in foods and supplements and can not be utilized by our body unless they are “digested” (broken down). And “absorption” is the next and critical step when these "digested nutrients" are “absorbed” to become available to the entire body.
“Poor absorption” means less of these “digested nutrients” are retained by and available to our body to maintain and support general health and well being. “Good absorption” means more of these “digested nutrients” are retained by and available to our body to support and promote better health and well being.
4. How does AstraGin™ Work?
AstraGin™ increases the special molecules in human body called “transporter” and “mRNA”. These two types of molecules determine how much or less specific nutrients are “absorbed” and “retained” in the body. There is a specific "transporter" for each nutrient. For example, the “SGLT1” “transporter” regulates the glucose absorption in intestinal cells.
This may be hard for many of us to understand. Think of "transporters" as "windows" or "doors" in a building. More "windows" or "doors" allow more people to come into the building. AstraGinTM increases the number of specific "windows" and "doors" that allow certain type of people to come into the building (human body). So far, NULIV has studied the absorption rate of Arginine, tryptophan, folate, glucosamine, glucose, and on a different type of cell, the liver cell (HepG2), the ATP production. More studies are underway and planned.
5. What health benefits do AstraGin™ has?
AstraGin™ can significantly
• Increases the steady-state absorption rate of Arginine and Tryptophan by 66.7% and 52.5%;
• Increases vitamins absorption by 50%;
• Increases glucose absorption by 57%;
• Increase ATP production by 18%;
6. What studies that have been done that validate what AstraGin™ can do?
AstraGin™ has gone through many studies in cells, animals, and humans. These studies have demonstrated that AstraGinTM indeed can significantly improve the absorption of many essential life supporting and health promoting nutrients, such as amino acids, glucose, and vitamins, at the intestinal tracts.
7. Where can I use AstraGin™ for?
AstraGin™, when incorporated into foods and dietary supplements, can produce many positive benefits in humans and animals, such as improved absorption, energy level, well being, blood sugar balance, and overall health.
8. How soon will I see result?
It will depend on a person’s health condition before he starts taking AstraGin™. Those with more pronounced absorption problem should see result sooner than those with less absorption problem. And the result generally is gradual and incremental.
9. What can I expect after taking AstraGin™ for a while?
Taking AstraGin™ on a consistent basis should help improve one’s overall health and well being. Increased absorption helps retain more nutrients in our body. More nutrients help nourish trillion cells in our body to repair and rebuild themselves, and improve their ability to function at their maximum level. All these should lead to improved overall health and well being.
10. Would older and sick people be helped by AstraGin™?
Yes, it should. Aged and sick people generally have weaker absorption functions. Improved absorption functions help provide more life supporting and health building nutrients to the trillion cells so these cells can become healthier and more alive. Healthier cells lead to improvement in overall health and well being.
11. Would healthy people be benefited by AstraGin™?
For people in good health, the benefit may not be obvious or immediately noticeable. This does not mean that they are not benefited from using AstraGinTM. On the contrary, AstraGin™ will make it easier for them to maintain and support their health and well being at the same or even higher level.
12. Can AstraGin™ improve the amino acid absorption even for healthy people?
Yes, definitely. NuLiv’s studies in cells (in vitro) indicated that when AstraGin™ was added to Arginine and Tryptophan, their “steady-state rate of absorption” across the “top of the monolayer” increased by 66.76% and 52.50% respectively when compared to Arginine and Tryptophan alone.
13. How long will AstraGin™ stay in human body?
Based on our in vitro studies, we believe AstraGin™ can be effective in human body for 24 hours or longer. In the in vitro studies, we added AstraGin™ to Caco-2 cells (intestinal cells where absorption takes place) 24 hours before commencing the studies and the effects of AstraGinTM continue on for the duration of the studies, i.e., 40 or 50 minutes.
14. Are there interactions between prescription drugs and AstraGin™?
AstraGin™ contains a blend of safe and well studied phytonurtients and is suitable for all healthy adults. However, concurrent use of AstraGin™ with prescription drugs has not been assessed. Please consult a physician before using AstraGin™. We also advice that warning be included in all products where AstraGin™ will be included in them, like all other similar food and dietary products.
15. How are the dose used in your in vitro studies related to your human dose?
Generally, there is no established scientific protocol to convert in vitro dose to human dose. However there is a paper published in Life Science (2006) about the kinetics of Astragalosides in beagle dogs. The in vivo data in this paper showed that the volume of distribution
in these beagle dogs is around 25% of their body weights. Since it is generally believed that the volume of distribution in beagle dog is similar to humans, therefore, the volume of distribution for a 60 Kg human is 15L. So multiplying an in vitro dose by 15,000 (15L) can be used as a reference for a human dose.
16. How do you convert the dose used in in vivo studies to human dose?
The dose used in our in vivo (rat) studies can be converted to human dose by multiplying 70 (for an average human weight of 70 Kg) and divided by 6.
17. Why effects of AstraGin™ on different nutrients occur at different dose levels?
Even though the exact mechanism is still not clear, some fractions in AstraGin™, such as ginsenosides, have been documented to convey their activities through multiple signaling pathways (examples: MAPKs, steroid receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, PKA, etc.). Different fractions in AstraGin™ have different optimal concentration levels for activating different signaling pathways, which result in different "most effective" dose levels for different nutrients.
18. Why AstraGin™ is more effective at lower dose?
Again, the exact mechanism is not quite clear. We believe that each fraction in AstraGin™ activates a specific signaling pathway at certain dose level. However, at higher doses, this fraction may activate other signaling pathways that counteract the activity of the starting pathway. Such interpretation has also been proposed by other investigators outside of NuLiv Science.
19. Is AstraGin™'s effect catalytic, i.e., through enzymatic action?
In our investigation, we don’t believe enzyme is directly involved in the activities of the fractions in AstraGin™. For example, in the glucose uptake study, the glucose transporters are not enzyme. There is also no known enzyme component that is directly involved in the activities of the transporters in all AstraGin™ studies.
20. How are CaCo2 cells produced and used in the AstraGin™ studies?
CaCo2 cells were produced using the transwell system with the differentiated CaCo-2 monolayer. The rate of nutrient substance transported directly across the membrane from the top to the bottom chamber was measured; therefore, cellular protein concentration is not considered as a parameter in this type of measurement.
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